I tried the newer image (BBB-eMMC-flasher-2013.05.08.img), but I still get the opkg update error. It’s a good thing I DD’d two memory cards.
Are you using Mac OS X?
To DD the image file, yes.
When booting via USB power from my Mac and using no Ethernet, I found (eventually!!) that the network config on my Mac OS X was mal-configured by default (http://j.mp/10zKIVa), lacking a router and DNS, thereby denying my opkg internet access.
You’ve probably checked this angle already, but I thought I’d mention it just in case.
The net for the BBB is using the Ethernet cable directly to my router/DSL connection. I’m ssh’ed in to the BBB, so I know the network isn’t down on the BBB. I do have the USB plugged into my mac, but it’s not using that connection. I’ll try it with just the Ethernet tonight.